• Wiper malware usually refutes data on a specific system, leading to irreversible data destruction.
  • In business cybersecurity, wiper malware is malicious software crafted explicitly to erase data completely.

Ever heard of digital ghosts? Those entities that stealthily invade your systems, leaving nothing but chaos in their wake. Today, we venture into the world of one such ghost—wiper malware. As its name implies, it wipes away your data, leaving your digital existence haunted. But fear not; we’re here to shed light on this nefarious entity, understanding its techniques and unraveling the best practices to protect your digital systems. Let’s start with the wiper malware definition.

What Is Wiper Malware?

In cybersecurity, the term “wiper” in wiper malware derives its name from its fundamental function, which involves wiping or erasing the contents of the victim machine’s hard disk.

It can be described as malicious software designed to obliterate data. As we delve into the subsequent sections, we will explore various methods employed to achieve this objective. First, here is an example of one of the significant incidents in the past.

A significant cybersecurity incident sent shockwaves through the global community in 2017 as a variant of the Petya ransomware, referred to as NotPetya or ExPetr, unleashed chaos upon computer systems worldwide. Diverging from the typical ransomware approach of encrypting files and extorting ransoms for decryption keys, NotPetya functioned as a “wiper.” Its core objective was to inflict irreparable and unrecoverable damage to data, setting it apart from traditional ransomware threats.

Outlined below are similar potent strains of wiper malware known for their devastating impact:

  • Caddywiper
  • Skywiper
  • Meteor
  • Hermetic wiper
  • WhisperGate

Understanding the origins and capabilities of this malware is essential in addressing the swift proliferation of this destructive threat. Let’s explore how wiper malware works in detail.

Swift Proliferation of Unrecoverable Wiper Malware: A Growing Concern

It is significant to know that standard file deletion methods, such as emptying the recycle bin or employing ‘del/rm’ commands, eliminate file pointers while retaining recoverable data accessible to forensic tools unless overwritten.

But in the case of wiper malware, they are designed to achieve the permanent deletion of data by overwriting its physical disk location with repetitive data, typically 0xFF. This operation is resource-intensive, involving writing several gigabytes or terabytes of data. To streamline this process, many wipers initially focus on two specific system files, i.e., the first is the Master Boot Record (MBR), and the other one is the Master File Table (MFT).

Manipulating the earlier file disrupts the boot process, rendering files inaccessible without forensic analysis. The latter houses file location, size, and metadata and handles fragmentation. Deleting the Master File Table necessitates forensic tools for small file recovery and blocks fragmented file retrieval due to lost fragment linkage.

Wiper malware is a major threat due to its destructive nature, recovery complexities, and potential harm to an organization’s operations and reputation. Here are some of the direct impacts of it:

  • Data Destruction
  • Impact on operations
  • Forensic challenges
  • Recovery costs
  • More toxic intent

Building upon this concern, let’s unravel the intricacies, exploring how these malicious entities perpetuate their destructive acts.

Deconstructing Wiper Malware Techniques

It is designed to erase data on infected systems permanently and is commonly used for destructive purposes like cyberattacks on critical infrastructure or to disrupt organizations. Standard wiper malware techniques include:

  • Data Overwriting: It typically replaces data on a targeted system, resulting in permanent data loss. This replacement can affect specific files, manipulate file headers, or compromise the Master Boot Record (MBR), ultimately causing system dysfunction.
  • File Encryption: Encrypting a file and destroying its decryption key renders it irrecoverable. While decryption may be attempted, robust encryption algorithms make this exceedingly difficult. However, it’s important to note that encryption can significantly slow down malware, typically used when attackers want to mimic ransomware, as seen in the case of NotPetya.
  • Counter-Forensic Techniques: Wiper malware frequently incorporates counter-forensic features to obstruct detection and analysis processes. These may involve erasing log files, altering timestamps, and employing various strategies to conceal their activities.
  • Network Interruption: It can disrupt network operations, resulting in denial of service (DoS) incidents, network downtime, or the incapacitation of essential infrastructure.
  • Utilization of Authorized Software: Certain wiper malware may exploit authorized system management software to execute their harmful operations, thereby increasing the difficulty of detection and containment.

After understanding the enemy and its risk, it becomes imperative to investigate how to prevent wiper malware.

How to Safeguard Organizations Against Wiper Malware

Protecting your organization from wiper malware demands a comprehensive strategy to enhance security measures and minimize the threat of these devastating attacks. Below, we outline essential actions to fortify your defenses:

  1. Backup Your Data

The most effective defense against ransomware and wiper malware is having off-site, offline backups. These backups are crucial for recovery, and regular testing ensures minimal downtime.

Strategic backup management ensures organizations maintain separate, secure data copies. In the event of wiper malware attacks, businesses can depend on these backups, typically stored in immutable storage solutions.

This approach not only expedites data recovery and minimizes costs but is often the sole recourse in wiper attacks, where paying a ransom is typically impractical.

  1. Implement Network Air-Gapping

This highly effective method safeguards backup data against wiper attacks through physical or logical isolation.

  • Physical air-gapping involves disconnecting digital assets, while backup data is stored on separate media like tape or disk, entirely disconnected from the production IT environment.
  • Logical air gapping employs network and user-access controls to isolate backup data from your core IT infrastructure. Data flows one-way to its destination, such as immutable storage or a custom appliance, with exclusive management via dedicated authentication channels.
  1. Disaster Recovery Preparedness

When dealing with a wiper malware incident, an organization’s readiness is key. This includes defining non-IT business continuity processes, backup restoration procedures, and communication strategies for customers and the media. These vital considerations should be established before any attack and documented in a comprehensive disaster recovery plan, proving invaluable during the high-pressure scenario of a live compromise.


In summary, wiper malware poses a grave threat to organizations by potentially erasing data and causing significant harm. To defend against it, businesses must employ a multifaceted security approach, including employee training, network segmentation, backups, advanced threat detection, and an effective incident response plan. Staying vigilant and collaborating with peers are also essential for mitigating this dangerous threat.

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